The cornea is the clear outer layer at the front of the eye. The cornea helps our eye to focus light so we can see clearly. Most of the corneal disorders are evident at birth (E.g., Microcornea, Sclerocornea) but some may develop as the child grows (E.g., Keratoconus). The corneal diseases affecting children include:
- Abnormal shape or Size- Microcorneal (Smaller than normal size), Megalocornea (Larger than normal size), Keratoconus.
- Corneal dystrophies- cause cloudy vision when material builds up on the cornea. These diseases usually run in families. Corneal dystrophies in childhood may cause recurrent episodes of painful erosions or progressive visual loss from corneal clouding.
- Infections- Keratitis/ Ulcer
- Metabolic diseases causing cloudy cornea E.g., Mucopolysaccharidosis
- Scarring of the cornea due to inflammatory or allergic conditions like Blepharitis or Allergic conjunctivitis
- Growth on the cornea- Dermoid, Keloid.
- Trauma/ Eye Injury